Sunday, February 24, 2008

Craniata fossils (fm tolweb)

fossilsCraniata

hagfish (Myxinikela)330mya late Clamprey (Mayomyzon, Hardistiella, Pipiscius) lateC of USA

anaspids? or lampreys-Jamoytius (Early Silurian of Scotland)-Euphanerops (Late Devonian of Canada)

Euconodonts (Middle Cambrian (540 million years) to the Late Triassic (230 million years);Carboniferous of Scotland; Ordovician of South Africa.)

Pteraspidomorphi, or pteraspidomorphs, is a group of fossil jawless vertebrates Early Ordovician to the Late Devonian (i.e. from 470 to 370 million years ago

The Anaspida, or anaspids, are a group of fossil, jawless vertebrates which lived in the Silurian (-430 to -410 million years ago)

The Galeaspida, or galeaspids, are a highly diversified group of fossil, armored, jawless vertebrates, which lived in Silurian and Devonian times (430 to 370 million years ago).

The Pituriaspida are a small group of fossil, armored jawless vertebrates, only known by two genera, Pituriaspis and Neeyambaspis, from the late Early Devonian or early Middle Devonian (about 390 million years) of Queensland, Australia

The Gnathostomata, or gnathostomes, are the majority of the Middle Devonian (-380 million years ago) to Recent vertebrates. Extant gnathostomes fall into two major clades, the Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes. In addition, there are two extinct major gnathostome clades, the Placodermi (Early Silurian-Late Devonian) and the Acanthodii (Latest Ordovician or Earliest Silurian - Early Permian).

The oldest known skeletal remains of terrestrial vertebrates were found in the Upper Devonian of East Greenland (Clack, 1994). The presence of Lower to Middle Devonian trackways in Australia has led to suggestions that this group may have originated in the Lower Devonian, at least 400 million years ago

Tetrapods originated no later than the Mississippian (about 350 million years ago), the period from which the oldest known relatives of living amphibians are known.

The oldest amniotes currently known date from the Middle Pennsylvanian locality known as Joggins, in Nova Scotia (Carroll, 1964). The relationships of these fossils indicate that amniotes first diverged into two lines, one line (Synapsida) that culminated in living mammals, and another line (Sauropsida) that embraces all the living reptiles (including birds). ... suggests that the more inclusive clade of which turtles (Testudines) are part (Anapsida) in most
morphological phylogenies had diverged as well, even though its current record extends back only to the Lower Permian (Laurin & Reisz, 1995).

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