Friday, February 22, 2008

More on mammals (Wiki)

The McKenna/Bell hierarchical listing of all of the terms used for mammal groups above the species includes extinct mammals as well as modern groups, and introduces some fine distinctions such as legions and sublegions (ranks which fall between classes and orders) that are likely to be glossed over by the nonprofessionals.
The published re-classification forms both a comprehensive and authoritative record of approved names and classifications and a list of invalid names.
Extinct groups are represented by a cross (†).
Class Mammalia
Subclass Prototheria: monotremes: echidnas and the Platypus
Subclass Theriiformes: live-bearing mammals and their prehistoric relatives
Infraclass †Allotheria: multituberculates
Infraclass †Triconodonta: triconodonts
Infraclass Holotheria: modern live-bearing mammals and their prehistoric relatives
Supercohort Theria: live-bearing mammals
Cohort Marsupialia: marsupials
Magnorder Australidelphia: Australian marsupials and the Monito del Monte
Magnorder Ameridelphia: New World marsupials
Cohort Placentalia: placentals
Magnorder Xenarthra: xenarthrans
Magnorder Epitheria: epitheres
Grandorder Anagalida: lagomorphs, rodents, and elephant shrews
Grandorder Ferae: carnivorans, pangolins, †creodonts, and relatives
Grandorder Lipotyphla: insectivorans
Grandorder Archonta: bats, primates, colugos, and treeshrews
Grandorder Ungulata: ungulates
Order Tubulidentata incertae sedis: aardvark
Mirorder Eparctocyona: †condylarths, whales, and artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates)
Mirorder †Meridiungulata: South American ungulates
Mirorder Altungulata: perissodactyls (odd-toed ungulates), elephants, manatees, and hyraxes


Molecular classification of placentals
Clade Atlantogenata
Group I: Afrotheria
Clade Afroinsectiphilia
Order Macroscelidea: elephant shrews (Africa)
Order Afrosoricida: tenrecs and golden moles (Africa)
Order Tubulidentata: aardvark (Africa south of the Sahara)
Clade Paenungulata
Order Hyracoidea: hyraxes or dassies (Africa, Arabia)
Order Proboscidea: elephants (Africa, Southeast Asia)
Order Sirenia: dugong and manatees (cosmopolitan tropical)
Group II: Xenarthra
Order Pilosa: sloths and anteaters (Neotropical)
Order Cingulata: armadillos (Americas)
Clade Boreoeutheria
Group III: Euarchontoglires (Supraprimates)
Superorder Euarchonta
Order Scandentia: treeshrews (Southeast Asia).
Order Dermoptera: flying lemurs or colugos (Southeast Asia)
Order Primates: lemurs, bushbabies, monkeys, apes (cosmopolitan)
Superorder Glires
Order Lagomorpha: pikas, rabbits, hares (Eurasia, Africa, Americas)
Order Rodentia: rodents (cosmopolitan)
Group IV: Laurasiatheria
Order Erinaceomorpha: hedgehogs
Order Soricomorpha: moles, shrews, solenodons
Order Chiroptera: bats (cosmopolitan)
Clade Cetartiodactyla
Order Cetacea: whales, dolphins and porpoises
Order Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, including pigs, hippopotamus, camels, giraffe, deer, antelope, cattle, sheep, goats
Order Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates, including horses, donkeys, zebras, tapirs, and rhinoceroses
Clade Ferae
Order Pholidota: pangolins or scaly anteaters (Africa, South Asia)
Order Carnivora: carnivores (cosmopolitan)

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